Birth control pills are among the most popular methods of preventing pregnancy. In the United States alone, between 2015 and 2017 about 13.9 percent of women used birth control pills, which are also called oral contraceptives. When used correctly, birth control pills are 99.7 percent effective in preventing pregnancy. So how do they work?
Birth control pills are synthetic steroid hormones, usually consisting of either a single hormone, progestin, or two hormones, progestin and estrogen. These hormones suppress the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary gland in the female body. FSH and LH normally trigger the release of estrogen from the ovaries, which in turn stimulates ovulation—the release of a mature egg from the female ovary. However, when FSH and LH are suppressed, the chances of ovulation, and therefore fertilization by a male sperm cell, are significantly reduced. Progestin-only birth control pills also cause mucus in the cervix to thicken, making it more difficult for sperm to reach the egg in the event that ovulation occurs.
While birth control pills are commonly used to prevent pregnancy, they may also be used to alleviate symptoms associated with menstruation. This is because birth control pills also reduce levels of prostaglandins in the body. Prostaglandins are substances that cause the muscles of the uterus to contract, producing sometimes intense and painful cramping.